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Knowledge Center

Research and Studies of Arthritis

Acupuncture can reduce pain and improve mobility in arthritis patients by 40 percent, scientists say. They announced the finding after conducting one of the world's longest and largest clinical trials to investigate the ancient Chinese needle treatment.

A total of 570 patients aged 50 and older with osteoarthritis of the knee took part in the American study. All had suffered significant pain in their knee the month before joining the trial, but had never experienced acupuncture.

By the eighth week, genuine acupuncture patients showed a significant increase in function compared with both the sham treatment and self-help groups. By week 14, they were also experiencing a significant decrease in pain...

For more detailed information go to: Acufinder's acupuncture info.

Food for Joints

Fruits

May is National Arthritis Month and there's no better time to take action.

Here are some healthy (and delicious) choices to include in your diet.

Ginger - A natural anti-inflammatory, available as powdered extracts in capsules as well as alcohol-based extracts. Follow the dosing directions on the label. Or make tea by combining one-half teaspoon of grated ginger root with eight ounces of boiling water. Cover and steep for 10 to 15 minutes, then strain and add honey to taste.

Fresh pineapple - Bromelain, an enzyme in pineapple, reduces inflammation. Be sure the pineapple is fresh, not canned or frozen.

Cherries - Recent research has shown that tart cherries are an excellent source of nutrients that may help to reduce joint pain and inflammation related to arthritis.

Fish - Cold-water fish such as salmon and mackerel contain omega-3 fatty acids, which help keep joints healthy as well as reduce pain and swelling. If you don't care for fish, consider supplementing your diet with fish oil capsules.

Turmeric - Another natural anti-inflammatory. Look for an extract of whole turmeric, in health-food stores; follow the dosage directions on the label

Skin Facts

  • On average, your epidermis (the outermost layer of skin) regenerates every 27 days (14 days for a 20 year old, 37 days for a 50 year old)
  • This process is most intensive at night, with cell regeneration taking place 8 times faster between the hours of 2 and 3 a.m., than during any other time of day
  • As the skin regenerates, it sloughs off dead cells amounting to approximately one gram per day. During the average lifetime, you will lose approximately 44 pounds of skin.
  • There are 3,900,000 cells per square inch of skin.
  • Your skin is a major sensory organ and contains 32 feet of nerves per square inch.
  • Your skin has over 8 feet of blood vessels per square inch.
  • Your epidermis accounts for only 10% of your skin mass.
  • Your skin continues to grow after your muscle, fat, and skeletal structures begin to deteriorate.
  • One square inch of skin contains 95-100 sebaceous (oil) glands, 9,500,000 cells, 650 sweat glands, and 65 hairs.
  • The skin responds to five basic sensations: pressure, touch, cold, heat, and pain.
  • Skin varies in thickness from a twelfth to a fifth of an inch.
  • Skin is the thinnest on the eyelids and thickest on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.
  • Things that adversely affect your skin include: excess of heat and cold, pollutants (free-radical damage), UVA and UVB sun damage, and smoking and intrinsic aging.
  • Sun damage - average solar damage takes between 15 and 20 years to show the effects. Intense solar exposure can cause visible damage even earlier.
  • We receive more than 80% of damage from the sun be fore the age of 18.
  • 45%-50% of all Americans who live to the age of 65 will develop skin cancer at least once.
  • Smoking - causes huge levels of free-radical damage. A single puff contains one hundred quadrillion free-radicals (more than one for every cell in the body). These free-radicals bind to our proteins and fats, causing tissue damage.
  • Alcoholic Beverages - ingesting more than .08 ounces of alcohol (a 16-ounce beer) can be deleterious and negate efforts to treat or prevent wrinkles.
  • Your skin begins to age when a person reaches 25, when hormone levels begin to decrease. Moisture content goes down, cell division slows, skin renewal decelerates, and oil secretion declines. By the time we reach 60 years old, we are able to make only about one-half of the necessary functional proteins we made when we were 20.
  • In addition to anti-aging skincare regimes, good nutrition, water consumption, sunscreen, exercise, and adequate rest act to counteract skin damage.

FATS: Safer Choices for the Frying Pan and Your Health

by Caroline Barringer, NTP, CHFS, FES

Several weeks ago I was shopping at my local co-op where I overheard a conversation taking place between two fellow co-op members regarding which fats and oils are safest for cooking. I couldn't help but eavesdrop to observe their comments, for I am passionate about the subject of fats and have studied them extensively over the past four years. As I listened to the two individuals exchange recipe ideas and the fats/oils each uses to prepare them, I was alarmed by the types of fats they considered safe for cooking. This co-op conversation inspired me to write this article with hope that our loyal readers will understand the importance of choosing safer fats for their frying pans - and most importantly, their health!

For the past 60 or more years, Americans have been on low-fat and/or poor quality fat diets. It's no surprise as to why we're suffering from such a myriad of degenerative diseases. We are, without a doubt, a society extremely deficient in healthy fatty acids! For those who have not been on low-fat diets, chances are, the fats and oils you've been purchasing from your local grocer are denatured, refined, unstable and quite frankly, dangerous to consume. The processing methods these fats are exposed to render them poisonous to our bodies - prematurely robbing us of our health and vitality!

The low-fat/no-fat approach was first promoted in the 1950's by nutrition researcher, Nathan Pritikin. Initially, Pritikin advocated a no-fat diet, high in un-refined carbohydrates, but long-term research revealed to him that a no-fat diet led to many physiological imbalances including fatigue, mood disorders (especially depression), nutrient deficiencies (especially minerals), weight issues and more. Realizing that fatty acids were necessary for balanced health, Pritikin began promoting that a low-fat diet, including modest amounts of vegetable fats (from nuts and seeds), was actually more healthful than the no-fat diet approach. Hence, the low-fat diet was born and this dangerously flawed theory is still a core dietary recommendation among dieticians, clinical nutritionists, and doctors to date.

First, let us examine how healthy fats/oils
of ALL KINDS BENEFIT our well-being:

  • Fats satisfy our appetites.
  • Fats aid in healthy hormone production in the body.
  • Fats greatly enhance mineral absorption in the diet.
  • Fats provide a long-burning source of energy - especially for the heart!
  • Fats build healthy bile; a substance made by the liver, stored and released by the gallbladder to aid in optimal fat digestion and emulsification.
  • Fats help to nourish every cell in our bodies by providing building blocks to maintain healthy cell membranes. (Nutrients in; Wastes out!)
  • Fats aid in the formation of anti-inflammatory substances in the body (prostaglandins)
  • Fats allow us to heal quickly and effectively (boosts healing inflammatory processes)

Next, let us look at how fats are classified:

Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA's) - highly stable in nature; do not turn rancid easily - even at higher temperatures. Saturated fat molecules are straight and stack together tightly to form a solid or semi-solid fat at room temperature.

Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA's) - relatively stable; do not turn rancid easily. Liquid at room temperature, but semi-solid upon refrigeration. Monounsaturated fat molecules are shaped differently than saturated fat molecules. They have a slight bend, which allows them to stack closely, yet not as tightly as SFA's. This is why MUFA's are liquid at room temperature.

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA's) - unstable at even room temperature; easily damaged by heat, light, moisture and oxygen exposure; refrigeration required; turn rancid quickly and easily. Polyunsaturated fat molecules have two bends, which will not allow them to stack together well at all. Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids fall in this category.

Keep in mind that all fats are a combination of fatty acids. Their classification is determined by the highest percentage of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acids. For example, hemp oil has a fatty acid profile of 1g of saturated fat, 11g of polyunsaturated fat, and 2g of monounsaturated fat. It is classified as a PUFA because the polyunsaturated type of fatty acid is the most abundant in hemp oil.

The MOST stable and healthful fats for cooking and occasional frying at higher temperatures/smoke points are certain animal fats and tropical oils, which belong to the saturated fat family. Saturated fats have been unfairly attacked since the medical and scientific so-called "experts" falsely linked the dietary intake of saturated fat and cholesterol to the increased incidence of heart disease. The study supporting this saturated fat scare, known as the "Lipid Hypothesis", was proposed in the 1950's by American Physiologist, Dr. Ancel Keys. The fats used in this study were hydrogenated, processed fats, known to be extremely irritating to the body, particularly the vascular system. Cholesterol acts as a healing agent to repair and protect the arteries and veins. Therefore, the more irritation, the more cholesterol will mobilize to save the day! Research now shows us that dietary cholesterol intake has VERY LITTLE to do with over all cholesterol levels, so this part of the theory was off target, as well. Today, the "Lipid Hypothesis" continues to be promoted by most medical professionals and pharmaceutical companies, as well as the modern food processing giants, who profit from such flawed research. Saturated fatty acids from healthy sources nourish the vascular system, enhance immune function, protect the liver from certain toxins (including alcohol), aid in calcium absorption, and increase cellular membrane integrity. Keep in mind that heart disease was considered a rare condition before the 1920's, but spiked dramatically from 1910 to 1970 as Americans began consuming less saturated animal fats to consuming increasing amounts of vegetable fats in the form of margarine, shortening and adulterated, refined oils of all types. Our not-so-distant ancestors consumed healthy sources of saturated fats each and every day with no adverse health effects whatsoever!

The LEAST stable fats for cooking are from vegetable, nut, and seed sources. High in omega-6 and/or omega-3 fatty acids, these particular types of fat molecules are extremely delicate and reactive. They become damaged and rancid easily when exposed to even mild to moderate temperatures, light, moisture or oxygen. They must remain refrigerated at all times, should NEVER be used for cooking, and should only be consumed in moderate amounts. I personally do not keep my omega-3/omega-6 oils any longer than six months - even when refrigerated in opaque, tightly sealed bottles. I also keep fatty acid supplements in the refrigerator at all times because they can turn rancid, too!

An important note about omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids:

Omega 3's or Alpha-Linolenic Fatty Acids are "essential" to our health. The term "essential" applies because the human body cannot manufacture these types of fatty acids on its own. We must obtain them through diet. But, please do not translate the fact that the "essential" need for these omega-3 fatty acids means that you need an abundance of them in your diet to be healthy. The opposite is true. A little goes a long way, so a modest amount (less than 1 teaspoon per day) is more than sufficient. This principle also applies to omega-6 fatty acids (Linoleic Fatty Acids). They are classified as "essential", but we do not need to consume much of these omega-6's. Only small amounts are needed. The Standard American diet contains too many omega-6's and too little omega-3's resulting in a grossly distorted omega fat ratio of nearly 19:1. The ideal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fats is 1:1. An easy way to incorporate the proper amount of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids into your diet is to add them in small amounts to other healthy oils. For example, prepare a balanced fatty acid salad dressing using 4 to 6 tablespoons olive oil with no more than a ½ to 1 teaspoon each of omega-6 (pumpkin or hemp oil) and omega-3 (flax oil) fatty acids, sea salt and organic apple cider vinegar.

The easiest way to stay within the optimal 1:1 ratio of omega-6's to omega-3's is to avoid ALL processed foods, which are highest in rancid, denatured omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA's. Prepare your foods at home as often as possible from fresh, local, and organic ingredients where YOU have control over the fats you cook with, or seek out a co-op or community kitchen preparing traditional foods with the correct fats if you have a busy schedule and cannot cook often. If you decide to dine out, take your oils (and sea salt, too) along with you! My local Thai restaurant is happy to cook my dinner with the virgin, organic coconut oil I bring in when dining there. In fact, now they keep my jar of coconut oil in a special place, so it is already there when I decide to dine at their establishment! Instead of BYOB (Bring Your Own Bottle) applying to alcohol alone, perhaps we can all start a healthy fatty acid revolution where BYOB will also mean "bring your own bottle OF OIL"!

Now, let's review how fats and oils are processed
and why we should avoid these toxic "franken-fats":

Before you add that bottle of commercially produced corn oil, vegetable oil, or tub of margarine or shortening to your shopping cart, first be sure you know how your oils of choice have been processed, so you may make an educated decision about the safest fats to consume to improve or maintain good health.

The ugly truth about commercially prepared oils: It's not the oil! It's the processing!

The first step of fatty acid processing is the EXTRACTION phase. Oils, naturally occurring in nuts and seeds, first need to be released for collection. To aid in the release of these oils, modern processing methods crush the nuts/seeds then expose them to heat in excess of 230 degrees! Next, the crushed nuts/seeds are pressed under great amounts of pressure to "squeeze out" the oils. The pounds of pressure used to force the oils generate additional heat, further damaging the fatty acid molecules. Next, a dangerous chemical solvent called hexane (a so-called "food grade solvent) is added to the crushed nuts/seeds to draw out the last bit of oil. Hexane is a derivative of petroleum that may cause impaired infertility and central nervous system depression, among other serious health dangers. Edible oil processors then boil off the hexane solvent for the most part, but traces of it remain - nearly 100 parts per million - in the oil! If the nuts and seeds being processed are not from organic sources, solvents like hexane act as a magnet - capturing the pesticides sprayed on them before harvesting. These pesticide concentrations show up in the end product, which is now a rancid, refined oil!

Another popular method used to process oils is HYDROGENATION. Examples of hydrogenated PUFA's are margarine and shortening. This process transforms PUFA's, which are naturally liquid at room temperature, into solid at room temperature fats so they are stable for long periods of time. This is a big plus for the processed food industry because PUFA's are cheap oils to extract in the first place. Extending their shelf-life through the hydrogenated process makes them even more economical. It's the health of the public that pays the price! The hydrogenation process usually begins with extracted, already rancid PUFA oils. [Please be aware that MUFA's may also be processed, as well as certain saturated fats - mainly tropical oils. Do not consume processed/refined MUFA"s or tropical oils! They are as damaging to the body as is any other refined and hydrogenated PUFA oil!] Next, tiny particles of metal in the form of nickel oxide are added to the oil, so that when it is exposed to hydrogen gas in a high-heat, high-pressure reactor, the fat molecules will be forced to chemically change their structure from a natural PUFA structure (two bends in the molecule) to that of a saturated fatty acid structure (a straight molecule). These altered molecules are called TRANS FATS. At this point, the oil has become thin and watery, as well as fowl smelling - a by product of rancidity. To return the oil to a thicker, more viscous state, processors add in multiple fillers/thickeners and the odors are removed through a steam-cleaning process, which subjects the oil to more heat, causing further molecular damage. Next, the oil is bleached to remove its dull gray color. This odorless, colorless white substance is now packaged as vegetable shortening. To produce margarine, artificial colors and flavors are added to make it resemble real butter. The end product is now a cheap PUFA oil acting as a stable saturated fat. Nature did not intend for PUFA molecules to be arranged this way! When we consume extracted and hydrogenated fats, we lose the ability to utilize healthy fats properly. Healthy fatty acids are displaced by the "franken-fatty acids" cascading the body into serious health problems such as cancer, diabetes, birth defects, sexual dysfunction, heart disease, and poor bone health, to name a few. A word of advice from fat experts Dr. Mary Enig and Sally Fallon, "Your best defense is to avoid partially hydrogenated fats like the plague"! I agree wholeheartedly!

Myth: Consuming a moderate amount of TRANS-FATS is considered safe.

Deceptive labeling practices are rampant among the processed food industry. Products containing extracted/hydrogenated fats are legally allowed to claim a "no trans fats" status, when in fact trans fats are indeed present in these products. How is this possible? Trans fatty acids are clearly a by-product of processing, but the FDA allows the food manufacturer to claim "zero trans-fats" on the label if the trans-fats content is under a certain "acceptable" amount. FACT: NO AMOUNT of trans fatty acids is safe to consume! In the exact words of the National Academy of Sciences, "Trans fatty acids are not essential and provide no known benefit to human health!" We must avoid these unhealthy fatty acids at all costs.

How to tell if an oil is chemically processed: SIMPLY READ THE LABEL!!

AVOID all fats and oils and the products that contain them if the following processing terms are listed ANYWHERE on ANY food label

  • Refined
  • Hydrogenated
  • Partially-Hydrogenated
  • Cold-PROCESSED (do not confuse this trick phrase with Cold-PRESSED)

INSTEAD, look for these safer processing terms on your fat/oil labels:

  • Organic
  • First-cold pressed or Cold-Pressed
  • Expeller-Pressed
  • UnrefinedExtra Virgin

Note: These "safer" processing techniques help to retain the antioxidant profile found in fats through low-temperature, low-light and low- oxygen extraction methods. Naturally occurring antioxidants protect fats from oxidizing (turning rancid) during extraction.

What exactly happens to PUFA's when they are improperly processed?

When PUFA's are exposed to the stressors of processing they become rancid or oxidized forming "free radicals". These chaotic, skewed fatty acid molecules, now in the form of free radicals, wreak havoc on the body attacking and damaging DNA/RNA, cell membranes, vascular walls, and red blood cells; all of which cascade into deeper physiological damage such as tumor formation, accelerated aging, arterial plaque accumulation, autoimmune imbalances, and more! Consuming PUFA'sin moderate amounts - unprocessed or minimally processed through safer methods - is healthful, so please do not avoid PUFA's altogether. Rotating them into the diet in small amounts along with a balance of healthy sources of mostly monounsaturated and saturated fats will provide you with a BALANCED, FULL-SPECTRUM FATTY ACID PROFILE that will undoubtedly serve your health in more ways that you can imagine!

So, which fats and oils should you choose for cooking? Below is a guide to help you determine which fats/oils are safest to include in your favorites recipes.

SAFEST FOR COOKING (frying, baking, broiling, grilling and roasting):

  • Lard
  • Ghee
  • Beef and Lamb Tallow
  • Chicken, Duck, and Goose Fat
  • Coconut Oil - organic and virgin
  • Red Palm Oil - organic and virgin (Palm kernel oil is also acceptable)

The vegetable fats in this category should be organic and unrefined in nature and the animal fats from organically raised, grass-fed and pastured animals.

Lard: Lard is the fat from pigs (pork fat). It is safe for cooking and frying due to its nearly equal fatty acid profile of 40% saturated and 48% monounsaturated fats. Lard has only 12% PUFA's and will vary depending on the animal's diet. Lard is a healthful source of vitamin D.

Ghee (Indian Clarified Butter): Ghee is a stable, saturated butter fat with the milk solids (casein proteins) removed. It is safe for cooking and light frying. If you are intolerant to butter, try ghee. Ghee is prepared by melting and simmering unsalted butter at a medium temperature until the water content of the butter has evaporated off. This allows the casein to separate and sink away from the butter fat. Next, the butter fat is carefully removed leaving the milk proteins behind. The butter fat is then allowed to cool and solidify to be packaged as ghee. Be sure the ghee you purchase is made from organic butter. There are several brands of ghee available at health markets, but if you wish to prepare your own homemade ghee, please view this helpful instructional video: Ghee preparation video

Beef and Lamb Tallow:Very safe for cooking and frying. Tallow fats are 50-55% saturated, 40% monounsaturated and only 3% or less polyunsaturated. Purchase from US Wellness Meats.

Chicken, Duck and Goose Fat: These bird fats are quite stable. They are highly regarded as healthful fats in Europe and beyond. Duck and Goose fats are somewhat superior to chicken fat due to their higher saturated fatty acid content and are safer for sautéing and frying at higher temperatures. Chicken fat has a higher MUFA profile and a lower saturated fatty acid profile, so chicken fat is best used for low to medium heat cooking (quick stir-frying, light sautéing, and slow/low simmering).

Coconut Oil: This healthful tropical oil is almost fully saturated (92%). It has powerful antimicrobial and antifungal properties and contains a medium-chain fatty acid called lauric acid, which is found in abundant quantities in breast milk. I like to combine coconut oil with ghee and lard when I don't want to taste coconut in my recipes. Coconut oil is safe for cooking and frying at higher temperatures.

Red Palm Oil: This tropical oil has a strong flavor that is, in my opinion, best suited for roasting root vegetables. Try roasting red and white potatoes, red, yellow, and orange bell peppers, fresh garlic and herbs in red palm oil. Butternut squash and parsnips are also delicious when roasted in red palm oil. It is a nice change from the usual oils used for cooking and brings color to your plate.

SAFER FOR COOKING (quick stir-frying, light sautéing, and slow/low simmering):

  • Olive Oil (Unfiltered is best; should be golden yellow/green in color and cloudy.)
  • Peanut Oil
  • Avocado Oil
  • Sesame Oil
  • Grapeseed Oil
  • Macadamia Nut Oil

These oils should ALWAYS be extracted via expeller-pressing!< Read the label first!

The Olive Oil (oleic acid) Myth: Olive oil contains 75% MUFA's. It is relatively stable for cooking. There has been a rumor moving its way through the holistic community for the past several years stating that trans fats are formed when olive oil is exposed to higher temperature. Mary Enig does a beautiful job of explaining that this rumor is not only untrue, but completely lacking in supportive scientific evidence. Lightly cooking with olive oil over a medium heat (less then 400 degrees) is considered safe.

Peanut Oil: Peanut oil is relatively stable due to its MUFA content. Use it occasionally for a quick stir-fry, but the key word here is "occasional". Peanut oil also has a significant PUFA content, so limited use is recommended.

Avocado Oil: A relatively new edible oil to the market since 1999, avocado oil has been previously used for many years as a moisturizing agent in cosmetic and hygiene products. Avocado oil is not extracted from the pit, rather it is extracted from the fatty pulp, which is high in MUFA's. It is similar to olive oil, so the same cooking rules apply.

Sesame Oil: Like peanut oil, sesame oil is relatively stable. Sesame oil falls right between a MUFA and a PUFA (42% MUFA, 43% PUFA), but it has high levels of antioxidants for protection against oxidation, so sesame oil may be used for low-heat stir-frying or a quick sauté on a very limited basis.

Grapeseed oil: There a many conflicting opinions about the safety of cooking with grapeseed oil. Like sesame oil, it has a higher smoke point due to its antioxidant content. Regardless, grapeseed oil is very high in PUFA's and should not be used for cooking.

Macadamia Nut Oil: Macadamia nut oil contains nearly 80% MUFA's. It is very close to the fatty acid profile of olive oil, so the same cooking rules apply. Mac oil has a distinctive, nutty flavor and is delicious in salad dressings. Look for expeller-pressed, organic UNBLENDED versions of this oil. Stores in the refrigerator for up to one year.

CON-ola (Canola Oil): Even though Canola is classified as a monounsaturated fat, it is also naturally high in omega-3 fatty acids. Extracted from the hybridized rapeseed, which is a genetically modified crop, canola is a HIGHLY PROCESSED oil! The omega-3 fatty acids in canola are delicate and turn rancid quickly. Therefore, that fact that canola oil must move through damaging extraction processes it is safe to say that canola oil is unfit for consuming, much less cooking! It is an oil of industry and DOES NOT belong in the human digestive tract!

UNSAFE FOR ANY KIND OF HEAT EXPOSURE!
DO NOT USE FOR COOKING!

  • Vegetable/Soybean Oil
  • Corn Oil
  • Flax Oil
  • Hemp Oil
  • Pine nut Oil
  • Pumpkin Oil (safely roasted or raw versions)
  • Safflower Oil (80% omega-6!)
  • Sunflower Oil

These PUFA oils are comprised of nearly half omega-6 fatty acids and should NEVER be used for cooking! If you do wish to consume these oils, do so in moderation, buy them from healthy sources and be sure that they are never refined or processed, although finding truly unprocessed versions of these oils is a difficult task! Corn and soybean oils are best avoided due to their genetically modified status and heavy pesticide levels.

Use omega-3 rich oils, like flax (and even smaller amounts of omega-6 oils) sparingly in salad dressings (add flax in small amounts to a base of olive oil); in small servings in a condiment such as homemade mayonnaise; stir them in small amounts into freshly prepared smoothies, lightly drizzle them over cold soups, dips, and hors d'oeuvres, or consume them right off the spoon in very limited quantities as a dietary supplement.

A note about Cottonseed Oil: Cotton is one of the most genetically modified, pesticide-laden crops in America. Besides the danger of ingesting these pesticides, since when did cotton and its seed become a food? Is there anyone out there eating cotton for breakfast? I certainly hope not! Mentioned earlier in this article, the extraction and hydrogenation processes quarantine pesticides in the oil, therefore the high pesticide levels found in cotton is reason enough to recommend it as inedible! Cottonseed oil is hydrogenated most of the time and is one of the main ingredients in Crisco shortening along with hydrogenated soybean oil. Avoid cottonseed oil at all costs!

A note about liquid Evening Primrose, Borage, and Black Currant Oils: These omega-6 fatty acids, whether liquid or contained is a soft-gel supplement, are widely available in health markets. They are nutritionally supportive to the endocrine system and are mass marketed to women especially to help balance hormones. PLEASE DO NOT COOK WITH LIQUID BORAGE, EVENING PRIMROSE, OR BLACK CURRANT SEED OILS! They are highly reactive and should never be heated. If you do wish to supplement with these oils, consume them in very small amount as you would any other omega-6 PUFA.

Don't forget about the health benefits of good, old-fashioned REAL BUTTER!

Butter is a dirty word among today's general population, but the TRUTH is our ancestors prized butter for its life-giving nutrients! Raw, unprocessed butter fat from grass-fed cows has a comprehensive fatty acid profile that protects it consumer from developing *imbalances such as hardening of the arteries, calcification of organs, glands and joints (arthritis), and cataracts. Most of us receive enough calcium from our regular diets, yet our bodies lose the ability to properly utilize this calcium intake. As a result, we show as having a calcium deficiency in an actual state of calcium excess due to a lack of the necessary cofactors (healthy fats and fat soluble vitamins) found in foods like raw butter, to aid our bodies in using calcium and other minerals in an effective manner. The excess calcium must be stored somewhere, so the innate intelligence of the body begins to store it in unusual places (arteries, kidneys, gallbladder, eyes, joints, etc.), resulting in the aforementioned imbalances*.

Quality raw butter contains: Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in small amounts in a healthful ratio; CLA or Conjugated Linoleic fatty aids for better weight management, muscle growth, and protection from cancer; Fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K to help us absorb and properly assimilate naturally occurring trace minerals (zinc, selenium, iodine, chromium, manganese, etc,) found in raw butter; Butyric fatty acids for protection against fungal infections and tumor growth; and Arachidonic fatty acids for proper inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses to heal effectively. Butter fat enhances brain function and increases cell membrane integrity. With all these health benefits, raw organic butter should be a central dietary fat consumed each and every day.

A word to the wise about fats!

Choose your oils and fats wisely and with GREAT CARE to ensure they have been minimally and safely processed, or better yet, not processed at all, and remember... healthy fats are not the enemy and healthy fats do not make you fat! If you want to learn more about fats and the important role they play in balanced health, visit www.westonaprice.org and read two eye-opening articles by Mary Enig and Sally Fallon titled, "The Skinny on Fat" and "The Oiling of America". These articles are a must read for anyone wishing to regain their health and vitality. Much of the information stated in this article is from the brave and wonderful work of Dr. Mary Enig and Sally Fallon authors of the aforementioned articles.

Sources:
Nourishing Traditions, by Sally Fallon
Know Your Fats, by Mary Enig,
www.westonaprice.org - Articles:"The Skinny on Fat" and "Fats and Oils FAQ's", "The Great Con-ola"
Nutritional Therapy Association, Inc.
"The Big Fat Lie" by Colleen Dunseth, NTP, NTA Instructor
Safety Data for Hexane: www.http://msds.chem.ox.ac.uk/HE/hexane.html
NationalAcademy of Sciences - Article: "Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, protein and amino acids.